According to the use and structure of the different lathes are divided into horizontal lathes and floor lathes, vertical lathe, turret lathe, single-axis automatic lathes, multi-axis automatic and semi-automatic lathes, profiled lathes and multi-knife lathe and a variety of specialized Lathes such as camshaft lathes, crankshaft lathes, wheel lathes, shovel lathes. In all lathes, horizontal lathes are the most widely used. Horizontal lathe processing size tolerance level up to IT8 ~ IT7, surface roughness Ra value of up to 1.6μm. Computer technology is widely used in the machine tool manufacturing industry, followed by the emergence of CNC lathes, turning machining centers and other mechanical and electrical integration products.
The turning tool is the most widely used single-blade tool. But also learning, analysis of the basis of various types of tools. Turning tools for a variety of lathes, processing cylindrical, bore, end, thread, car and so on.
The turning tool can be divided into whole turning tools, welding tools, machine tools, turning tools and forming turning tools. Which can be turned turning tool applications are increasingly widespread, in the proportion of turning tools gradually increased.
(1) Carbide welding tool The so-called welding tool, that is, in the carbon steel shank on the geometric angle of the tool out of the requirements of the knife slot, with solder to the carbide blade welded in the sipe, The geometric parameters are used after sharpening the tool.
(2) Machine Tool Cutter Knife Knife is a common blade, with a mechanical clamping method to hold the blade on the knife used in the knife.
(3) Indexable turning tool The indexable turning tool is a machine tool that uses an indexable insert. A cutting edge can be quickly transferred to an adjacent new cutting edge with a blunt edge, and the work can be continued until all the cutting edges on the blade are blunt and the blade is discarded. After the replacement of the new blade, the turning tool can continue to work.
Compared with the welding tool, the indexable turning tool has the following advantages:
A. High tool life Because the blade avoids defects caused by high temperatures in welding and sharpening, the geometrical parameters of the tool are ensured by the blade and the arbor slot, and the cutting performance is stable, thus improving the tool life.
B. High production efficiency As the machine operator is no longer sharpening, can greatly reduce the downtime and other auxiliary time.
C. is conducive to the promotion of new technologies, new technology can be transferred to the knife to promote the use of coating, ceramics and other new tool materials.
D. is conducive to reducing tool costs As the arbor long life, greatly reducing the arbor consumption and inventory, simplifying the management of the tool, reducing the cost of the tool.
The clamping characteristics and requirements of the indexable turning blade:
A. positioning accuracy High blade indexing or replacement of new blades, the tip position changes should be within the allowable range of workpiece accuracy.
B. blade clamping should ensure that the blade, knife pad, knife bar contact surface close fit, withstand the impact and vibration, but the clamping force should not be too large, the stress distribution should be uniform, so as not to crush the blade.
C. chip smooth blade in front of the best barrier to ensure smooth discharge of chips, and easy to observe.
D. easy to use to change the blade and replace the new blade is convenient and fast. Small size tool structure to be compact. To meet the above requirements, as far as possible to make the structure simple, easy to manufacture and use.
(4) forming tool turning tool is a special tool for machining the forming surface of the rotary body. The blade shape is designed according to the profile of the workpiece. It can be used to process the forming surface of the rotating body inside and outside the lathe. When the parts are machined with the forming tool, the parts can be formed at one time. The operation is simple and the productivity is high. After processing, the tolerance level IT8 ~ IT10, the roughness is 10 ~ 5μm, and the high interchangeability can be ensured. But the turning tool manufacturing more complex, high cost, blade length of work is wide, it is easy to cause vibration. Forming turning tools are mainly used in the processing of large quantities of medium and small size with the shape of the surface parts.
Classified by purpose
(1) turning tool can be divided according to use
(A) 90 ° turning tool (side knife);
(B) 45 ° turning tool (elbow turning tool);
(C) cutting the knife;
(D) boring knife;
(E) forming a turning tool;
(F) thread turning tools;
(G) Carbide does not re-grinding the knife
(2) the basic use of various turning tools
(A) 90 ° turning tool: used to turn the workpiece of the outer circle, step and end face.
(B) 45 ° turning tool: used to turn the workpiece of the outer circle.
(C) cutting knife: used to cut off the workpiece or workpiece cut out of the groove.
(D) Boring knife: used to cut the workpiece hole.
(E) Forming turning tools: fillet, round groove or turning special shape workpiece for turning the stage.
(F) Pattern knife: used to turn the thread.
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